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A gut matter: the parallel aging of the microbiota and the brain

MicrobiotaMi Comment 30_21
by Giulia Colombo

Age-related cognitive decline is associated with chronic low grade neuroinflammation that may result from a complex interplay among many factors, such as bidirectional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and gut microbiota. This usually occurs through the immune, the neuroendocrine and the vagal pathways. Wu et al. compared 2-month-old (young) and 15-month-old (aged) mice to explore …

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Gut microbiota a key player in healthy aging

MicrobiotaMi Comment 29_21
by Martina Morandi

Extrinsic factors, such as lifestyle, diet, medication, physical activity, are essential in the control of human healthy aging and they can have a significant impact on gut microbiota. The latter is not a static entity, but it changes throughout the lifespan becoming increasingly unique to individuals with age. Several studies have investigating the gut microbiota of centenarians and supercentenarians showing that even if …

Bacteria-derived peptides are presented by HLA molecules in melanoma

MicrobiotaMi Comment 28_21
by Federica Spaggiari

A large amount of bacteria colonize healthy mucosal tissue of the human body from early life and create a symbiotic relationship with the host organism. The commensal flora composition varies between individuals and life stages. More recently, tumour-resident bacteria has captured the attention of the scientific community. Indeed, multiple studies are focused on understanding the role of specific microbial populations within …

Clostridioides difficile behaviour in the inflamed gut: a transcriptional and microbial composition alteration

MicrobiotaMi Comment 27_21
by Federica Spaggiari

Clostridioides difficile is a Gram positive, spore-forming and ubiquitous anaerobe that can be easily found in the soil. C. difficile is a member of the normal human gut flora even if its growth and activity are suppressed by more dominant anaerobes in healthy conditions. The rate of gut colonization varies among age groups. In particular, it is abundant during infancy,….

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The role of neonatal microbiota in myelination and signaling of the gut-brain axis

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by Stefania Blasa

The gut microbiota has a crucial role in the development of brain, gut and immune system. Alterations in its components could induce several diseases, such as gastrointestinal disease, irritable bowel syndrome and psychological disorders such as depression and autism. The bidirectional communication between gut and brain through the microbiota-gut-brain …

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Gut Microbiota-Neuron-Treg Triangle

MicrobiotaMi Comment 25_21
by Benedetta Sposito

It is well known that the microbiota influences the development and skewing of the intestinal immune system. Among the multiplicity of innate and adaptive immune cells that colonize the intestine, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis and tolerance to commensal bacteria. Previous reports have described the ability of specific commensals to induce differentiation of RORγ+ Tregs in the mouse colon. Interestingly, these microbial …

Ecology of the multi-kingdom human gut microbiota assembly: insights from preterm infants

MicrobiotaMi Comment 24_21
by Giulia Colombo

The new-born human gut is like a desert island for the microbiota: in fact, it evolves predictably with pioneer species colonizing the gut after birth, followed by an ordered succession of microorganisms. This colonizing process can be studied in a privileged manner in preterm infants, as well as the potentially shaping influences of the environment, the host and interactions …

Lung cancer and oral microbiota: possible connections in never-smokers

MicrobiotaMi Comment 23_21
by Marco Tonelli

Lung cancer is the first cause of death among cancer-related deaths. The majority of cases is related to tobacco smoking, nevertheless, 25% of lung cancer cases occur in non-smokers. As we already know, there are lots of other risk factors, such as household and outdoor air pollution, secondhand tobacco smoke, radon exposure and so on. The study by Hosgood et al., published on Thorax, aims at finding an association between …

Investigating the potential effects of inulin on gut microbiota of schizophrenia-affected mice

MicrobiotaMi Comment 22_21
by Stefania Blasa

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder, which causes psychosis in 1% of worldwide patients, disability and socioeconomic burdens on public health. Its etiology is multifactorial and includes genetic causes and environmental risk factors.
The gut-brain axis influences neurotransmission, neurogenesis …

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The importance of fiber in the maintenance of human gut microbiota health

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by Martina Morandi

Food is one of the most singularly important factors in overall health and a healthy diet is the cornerstone for a healthier life. Generally speaking, a diverse gut microbiota is considered to be more beneficial for the host, this is because the more species of bacteria you have, the greater number of benefits they may be able to contribute to. A diet rich of different food types can lead to …